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Books Back to the top

  • Adams, T.N., Frederick, W.J., Grace, T.M., Hupa, M., Iisa, K., Jones, A.K., Tran, H.N., Kraft Recovery Boilers, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 1997.

  • Adams, T.N. and W.J. Frederick, Jr., Kraft Recovery Boiler Physical and Chemical Processes, The American Paper Institute, 1988.

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Book Chapters Back to the top

  • Hupa, M., R. Backman, and W.J. Frederick, “Black Liquor Combustion Properties,” in 30 Years Recovery Boiler Cooperation in Finland, Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee, Helsinki (1994), pp. 37-60.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.M. Grace, “Scaling in Alkaline Spent Pulping Liquor Evaporators,” in Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment, Somerscales and Knudsen, Eds., Hemisphere Publishing Company, WA (1981).

  • Frederick, W.J., “The Energy Cost of Increased Organics Recovery for Chemical By-Products in Kraft Pulp Mills,” Progress in Biomass Conversion, vol. 5, Jahn and Tillman, Eds., Academic Press, 1984, pp. 143-162. Progress in Biomass Conversion, Vol. 5: 143-162.

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Refereed Technical Publications Back to the top
  • Sricharoenchaikul, V; Agrawal, P.; Frederick, W.J. Jr. Black Liquor Gasification Characteristics. 1. Formation and Conversion of Carbon-Containing Product Gases During Gasification of Black Liquor. Accepted for publication in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, September, 2002.

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V; Agrawal, P.; Frederick, W.J. Jr. Black Liquor Gasification Characteristics. 2. Measurement of Condensable Organic Matter (Tar) At Rapid Heating Conditions. Accepted for publication in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, September, 2002.

  • Nohlgren, I.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Sinquefield, S.; Frederick, W. J. Jr. and Theliander, H. Black Liquor Gasification with Direct Causticization using Titanates in a Pressurized Entrained Flow Reactor. Part 1: Kinetics of the Causticization Reaction. Accepted for publication in J. Pulp Paper Sci., June, 2002.

  • Sutinen, J.; Karvinen, R.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.. A Chemical Reaction Engineering and Transport Model of Kraft Char Bed Burning. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2002), 41(6), 1477-1483.

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Hicks, A.L.; Frederick, W J. Jr. Carbon and char residue yields from rapid pyrolysis of kraft black liquor. Bioresour. Technol. (2001), 77(2), 131-138.

  • Lindblom, Josefina; Frederick, W. James; Lien, Steven J.; Theliander, Hans. Sintering of recovery boiler dust: the influence of the composition of the dust. AIChE Symp. Ser. (2000), 324, 20-27.

  • Larson, E.; McDonald, G.; Yang, W.; Frederick, W.; Iisa, K.; Kreutz, T.; Malcolm, E.; Brown, C. “Cost-Benefit Assessment of Black-Liquor Gasifier/Combined-Cycle Technology Integrated into a Kraft Pulp Mill,” Tappi J. 83(6):57 (2000).

  • Frederick, W.J. Jr., V. Phimolmas, K. Iisa, “The Effect of Temperature and Residence Time on the Distribution of Carbon, Sulfur and Nitrogen between Gaseous and Condensed Phase Products from Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Kraft Black Liquor,” AIChE Symp. Ser., 95(322):119-127 (1999).

  • Frederick, W.J. Jr., M. McAleer, W. Schmidl, A.W. Rudie, A.J. Gerbino, G.L. Rorrer, W. Yantasee, "Modeling the Fate of Metal Ions During Brownstock Washing with Bleaching Filtrate Recycle," AIChE Symp. Ser., 95(322):21-30 (1999).

  • Techakijkajorn, U., Frederick, W.J., Tran, H.N., “Sintering and Densification of Recovery Boiler Deposits: Laboratory Data and a Rate Model,” J. Pulp Paper Sci., 25(3):73-80 (1999).

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V. Phimolmas, V., Frederick, W. J. Jr., Grace, T.M., “Pyrolysis of Kraft Black Liquor: Formation and Thermal Conversion of Volatile Products and Char.” J. Pulp Paper Sci. 24(2):J43-50 (1998).

  • Wåg, K.J., Frederick, W.J., Dayton, D.C., Kelley, S.S.,Characterization of Black Liquor Char Gasification using Thermogravimetry and Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry,” in Further Advances in the Forest Products Industries, P. W. Hart, ed., AIChE Symp. Ser., 93(315):67-76 (1997).

  • Boonsongsup, L., K. Iisa, and W.J. Frederick, “Kinetics of Sulfation of NaCl at Combustion Conditions.” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 36(10):4212-4216 (1997).

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Frederick, W.J.; Grace, T.M., Sulfur Species Transformations During Pyrolysis of Kraft Black Liquor.” J. Pulp Paper Sci. 23, 8: J394-400 (1997).

  • Wåg, K.J., Reis, V.V., Frederick, W.J., Grace, T.M., Mathematical model for the release of inorganic emissions during black liquor char combustion.” TAPPI J., 80(5):135-145 (1997).

  • Wilson, K.P., Laver, M.L., Frederick, W.J., “The use of CREN to improve 13C-NMR spectra of compounds containing carbon atoms representative of organics dissolved in kraft black liquor.” Wood and Fiber Science, 29(2):171-177 (1997).

  • Dayton, D.C., Frederick, W.J., 1996, "Direct Observation of Alkali Vapor Release During Biomass Combustion and Gasification. 2. Black Liquor Combustion at 1100°C." Energy&Fuels, 10(2):284-292 (1996).

  • Frederick, W.J., Iisa, K., Lundy, J.R., O’Connor, W.K., Reis, K., Scott, A.D., Sinquefield, S.A., Scricharoenchaikul, V., and Van Vooren, C.A., “Energy and materials from recycled paper sludge,” Tappi Jl., 79(6):123-131 (1996).

  • Frederick, W.J., Danko, J.P., and Ayers, R.J., “Controlling TRS Emissions from Dissolving Tank Stacks” Tappi Jl., 79(6):144-148 (1996).

  • Stenberg, J., Frederick, W. J., Boström, S., Hernberg, R., Hupa, M., 1996, "Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces,” Review of Scientific Instruments, 67(5):1976-1984 (1996).

  • Reis, V. V., Frederick, W. J. ,Wåg, K. J. , Iisa, K., and Sinquefield, S. A., "The Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Concentration on Potassium and Chloride Enrichment During Black Liquor Combustion," Tappi Jl., 78(12):67-76 (1995).

  • Whitty, K.J., M. Hupa, and W.J. Frederick, “Gasification of Black Liquor Char with Steam at Elevated Pressures,” J. Pulp Paper Sci., 21(6):J214-J221 (1995).

  • Mikkanen, P., E.I. Kauppinen, J.K. Jokiniemi, S.A. Sinquefield, and W.J. Frederick, “Bimodal Fume Particle Size Distributions from Recovery Boiler and Laboratory Scale Black Liquor Combustion,” Tappi Jl., 77(12):81-84 (1994).

  • Mikkanen, P., E.I. Kauppinen, J.K. Jokiniemi, S.A. Sinquefield, W.J. Frederick, and M. Mäkinen, “The Particle Size and Chemical Species Distributions of Aerosols Generated in Kraft Black Liquor Pyrolysis and Combustion,” AIChE Symp. Ser., vol. 90, no. 302, pp. 46-54 (1994).

  • Boonsongsup, L., K. Iisa, and W.J. Frederick, “SO2 Capture and HCl Release at Kraft Recovery Boiler Conditions,” AIChE Symp. Ser., vol. 90, no. 302, pp. 39-45 (1994).

  • Frederick, W.J., M. Hupa, J. Stenberg, and R. Hernberg, “Optical Pyrometric Measurements of Surface Temperatures During Black Liquor Char Burning and Gasification,” Fuel, 73(12):1889-1894 (1994).

  • Frederick, W.J. and M. Hupa, “The Effects of Temperature and Gas Composition on Swelling of Black Liquor Droplets During Devolatilization,” J. Pulp Paper Sci., 20(10):J274-J280 (1994).

  • Frederick, W.J., M. Hupa and T. Uusikartano, “Volatiles and Char Carbon Yields During Black Liquor Pyrolysis,” Bioresource Technology, 48:59-64 (1994).

  • Backman, R., W.J. Frederick and M. Hupa, “Basic Studies on Black-Liquor Pyrolysis and Char Gasification,” Bioresource Technology, 46:153-158 (1993).

  • Frederick, W.J., K. Wåg, and M. Hupa, “Rate and Mechanism of Black Liquor Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Pressures,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Research, 32(8):1747-1753 (1993).

  • Frederick, W.J., W-Y. Yoon, Zurong Yang, and G.P. Golike, “The Rate of Calcium Sulfate Fouling in Sulfite Spent Liquor Evaporators,” AIChE 1992 Forest Products Symposium Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 65-74 (1993).

  • Yang, Zurong, Woon-Young Yoon, and W.J. Frederick, “Rate of Liquor Side Fouling in Evaporators,” Huagong Xuebao/Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering (China), 43(2):154 (April 1992).

  • Luh, S.P. and W.J. Frederick, “Phase Behavior of Sodium Lignosulfonates in Water-Ethanol Mixtures,” Holzforschung, 46:325-330 (1992).

  • Gasteiger, H.A., W.J. Frederick, and R.C. Streisel, “Solubility of Aluminosilicates in Alkaline Solutions and a Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Research, 31(4):1183-1189 (1992).

  • Forssén, M., W.J. Frederick, M. Hupa, and P. Hyöty, “Sulfur Release During Pyrolysis from Single Black Liquor Droplets,” AIChE 1991 Forest Products Symp. Proc., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 11-22 (1992).

  • Frederick, W.J. and M. Hupa, “The Effect of Swelling on Droplet Trajectories, Carbon Burn-out and Entrainment in Black Liquor Combustion,” AIChE 1991 Forest Products Symp. Proc., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 79-90 (1992).

  • Frederick, W.J., T. Noopila, and M. Hupa, “Combustion Behavior of Black Liquor at High Solids Firing Conditions,” TAPPI Journal, 74(12):163-170 (1991).

  • Frederick, W.J. and M. Hupa, “Evidence of Sodium Fuming during Pyrolysis of Black Liquor,” TAPPI Journal, 74(11):192-194 (1991).

  • Frederick, W.J., T. Noopila, and M. Hupa, “Swelling of Spent Pulping Liquor Droplets During Combustion,” Journal of Pulp Paper Sci., 17(5):J164-J170 (1991).

  • Frederick, W.J. and M. Hupa, “Gasification of Black Liquor Char with CO2 at Elevated Pressures,” TAPPI Journal, 74(7):177-184 (1991).

  • Frederick, W.J., R. Krishnan, and R.J. Ayers, “Pirssonite Deposits in Green Liquor Processing,” TAPPI Journal, 73(2):135-140 (1990).

  • Gasteiger, H.A. and W.J. Frederick, “A Thermodynamic Model for Aluminosilicate Equilibria in Alkaline Solutions,” Proc. 1988 AIChE For. Prod. Div. Sessions, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1989), pp. 195-202.

  • Frederick, W.J., R.C. Streisel, and H.A. Gasteiger, “The Solubility of Aluminosilicates in Alkaline Pulping Liquors,” in Chemical Engineering Technology in Forest Products Processing, B. Crowell, editor, AIChE Forest Products Division, Tacoma, WA (1988), pp. 67-80.

  • Frederick, W.J., B. Kelly, H.C. Kim, M.J. McIntyre, and J.P. Danko, “Modeling Electrolyte Behavior in Pulp and Paper Processes,” in Chemical Engineering Technology in Forest Products Processing, B. Crowell, editor, AIChE Forest Products Division, Tacoma, WA (1988), pp. 87-96.

  • Frederick, W.J., K.P. Wilson, M.L. Laver, and S.A. Sinquefield, “Solute Rejection in the Ultrafiltration of Natural Products,” Chemical Engineering Communications (1988).

  • Kim, H.T. and W.J. Frederick, “Evaluation of Pitzer Ion Interaction Parameters of Aqueous Electrolytes at 25°C. 1. Single Salt Parameters,” J. Chem. and Eng. Data, v. 33, no. 2, (1988), p. 177.

  • Kim, H.T. and W.J. Frederick, “Evaluation of Pitzer Ion Interaction Parameters of Aqueous Electrolytes at 25°C. 2. Ternary Mixing Parameters,” J. Chem. and Eng. Data, v. 33, no. 3, (1988).

  • Kelly, B. and W.J. Frederick, “An Equilibrium Model for Trace Element Solubility in Aqueous Inorganic Solutions,” in Applications of Chemical Engineering Principles in the Forest Products and Related Industries, F. Kayihan and B. Krieger-Brockett, editors, AIChE Forest Products Division, Tacoma, WA (1986), pp. 1-8.

  • Danko, J.P., W.J. Frederick, and R.V. Mrazek, “A Study of the Chemical Equilibria in the Kraft Smelt Dissolving System,” in Applications of Chemical Engineering Principles in the Forest Products and Related Industries, F. Kayihan and B. Krieger-Brockett, editors, AIChE Forest Products Division, Tacoma, WA (1986), pp. 44-55.

  • Sanz, C.C. and W.J. Frederick, “A Rapid Convergence Technique for Steady-State Multiple Effect Evaporator Simulation,” in Applications of Chemical Engineering Principles in the Forest Products and Related Industries, F. Kayihan and B. Krieger-Brockett, editors, AIChE Forest Products Division, Tacoma, WA (1986), pp. 56-63.

  • Frederick, W.J., G.H. Covey, and R.E. Harrison, “A Study of the Sensitivity of Energy Recovery to Design and Operating Parameters in a DARS Plant,” AIChE Symposium Series, V. 81, No. 246, pp. 1-8 (1985).

  • Frederick, W.J., “Managing Non-Process Element Flows in Pulp Mill Chemical Cycles,” AIChE Symposium Series, V. 80, No. 239, pp. 21-29 (1984).

  • Lavery, H.P., T.M. Grace, and W.J. Frederick, “Slug and Churn Flow Heat Transfer in the Long Tube Vertical Evaporator,” Svensk Papperstidning, Research Section, pp.R72-80 (1983).

  • Westervelt, H.H., W.J. Frederick, E.W. Malcolm, and D.B. Easty, “New Evidence Concerning the Role of Black Liquor Organics in Calcium Carbonate Scale Formation,” TAPPI, 65(5):179-80 (1982).

  • Westervelt, H.H., W.J. Frederick, E.W. Malcolm, and D.B. Easty, “The Determination and Temperature Dependence of the Stability Constant of the Calcium - Catechol-4-Sulfonate Complex in Alkaline, Aqueous Media“, Analytica Chimica Acta, 138 (1982), pp. 237-243.

  • Kelley, P.A., W.J. Frederick, and T.M. Grace, “The Residence Time Distribution of Inorganic Salts in Kraft Recovery Boilers,” TAPPI, 64(10):85-87, October 1981.

  • Frederick, W.J., T.M. Grace, and T.W. Joyce, “Disposal of Secondary Sludge in the Kraft Recovery System,” TAPPI, 64(1):59-62, January 1981.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.M. Grace, “The Outlook for the Conventional Recovery Process,” AIChE Symp. Ser., 76(200):90-98, New York (1980).

  • Frederick, W.J., D.G. Sachs, H.J. Grady, and T.M. Grace, “Boiling Point Elevation and Solubility Limit for Kraft Black Liquors,” TAPPI, 63(4):151, April 1980.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.M. Grace, “Analysis of Scaling in a Black Liquor Evaporator,” AIChE Symp. Ser. 184, Vol. 75, pp. 95-101 (1979).

  • Hanna, W.T. and W.J. Frederick, “Energy Conservation in the Pulp and Paper Industries,” Chem. Eng. Prog., vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 71-77 (1978).

  • Frederick, W.J. and C.C. Mentzer, “Heats of Volatilization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” J. Applied Polymer Sci., 19, 7, July 1975, p. 1799-1804.

  • Frederick, W.J. and E.G. Bobalek, “The Dynamics of Chemically Reacting Liquid Drops on Porous Surfaces,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 14, February 1975, p. 40-46.

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Symposium Proceedings and Non-Refereed Journals Back to the top

  • Shi, B.; Frederick, W.J.Jr.; Rousseau, R.W. Tracking And Controlling Nucleation In Complex Fluids. Proc. 15th International Symposium on Industrial Crystallization, September 15 - 18, 2002, Sorrento, Italy.

  • Euhus, D.D., Rousseau, R.W., Frederick, W.J.Jr.; Lien, S.J. “Black Liquor Evaporation: Links between Nucleation in the Bulk and Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces,” Separations Technology Topical Conference, AIChE, New York, 2001, pp. 236-241.

  • Shi, B., Rousseau, R.W., Frederick, W.J. Jr. Nucleation of Burkeite from Aqueous Solutions and Black Liquor. Proc. 2001 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chem Recovery Conf., PAPTAC, Montreal, p. 177-181.

  • Euhus, D.D., Rousseau, R.W., Frederick, W.J. Jr., Lien, S.J. Sodium Salt Fouling in Falling-Film Evaporators: A Pilot Study, Proc. 2001 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chem Recovery Conf., PAPTAC, Montreal, p. 183-193.

  • Frederick, W.J. Jr., Lien, S.J., Vakkilainen, E., Tran, H.N., A Method to Predict the Conditions for Boiler Bank Plugging by Sub-Micron Sodium Salt (Fume) Particles. Proc. 2001 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chem Recovery Conf., PAPTAC, Montreal, p. 311-321.

  • Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Armstead, D.; Lien, S.J.; Kazem, B. Economic Benefits of Utilizing Controlled Cavitation Technology for Black Liquor Oxidation And Heating. Proc. 2001 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chem Recovery Conf., PAPTAC, Montreal, p. 413-420.

  • Rorrer, Gregory L.; Rudie, Alan; Frederick, W. James. Modeling and simulation of NPE metal ion adsorption and precipitation in a single-stage drum washer. Int. Environ. Conf. Exhib. (2000), 2 907-923.

  • Frederick, W. J. Jr., “How Integrated Gasification Will Impact Kraft Pulping and Recovery,” Tappi J. 82(9):45-47 (1999).

  • Lien, S.J., W.J. Frederick, Jr., A. Ling, H.N.Tran, “Sintering and Densification Rates for Recovery Boiler Fume Deposits,” Proc. 1999 TAPPI Engineering Conf., Tappi Press, Atlanta, p. 151-162.

  • Frederick, W. J. Jr., K. Iisa, V. Sricharoenchaikul, “Black Liquor Gasification: Is It For Sulfite And NSSC Pulp Mills Too?”Proc. 1999 International Environmental Conf., Tappi Press, Atlanta, p. 269-277.

  • Frederick, W.J. Jr., Iisa K., “The Impact of Reducing Particulate Emissions on Metals Emissions From Recovery Boilers and Lime Kilns,” Proc. 1999 International Environmental Conf., Tappi Press, Atlanta, p. 465-477.

  • Frederick, W.J., “Black Liquor Properties and Principles of Evaporation” 1999 TAPPI Kraft Recovery Operations Short Course, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1999), pp. 3.1-1 – 3.1-25.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.N. Adams, “Evaporator Fouling: Principles and Solutions,” 1999 TAPPI Kraft Recovery Operations Short Course, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1999), pp. 3.3-1 – 3.3-33.

  • Hupa, M. and W.J. Frederick, “Combustion of Black Liquor Droplets,” 1999 TAPPI Kraft Recovery Operations Short Course, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1999), pp. 5.2-1 – 5.2-21.

  • Wannenmacher, P.; Frederick, W.; Hendrickson, K.; Holman, K. “Solubility of Aluminosilicates in Kraft Green and White Liquors,” 1998 International Chemical Recovery Conference: Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, p. 131-139.

  • Grace, T.; Frederick, W.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K., “New Black-Liquor-Drop Burning Model,” 1998 International Chemical Recovery Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, p. 257-270.

  • Schmidl, W.; Frederick, W. “Current Trends in Evaporator Fouling,” 1998 International Chemical Recovery Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, p. 367-377.

  • Sinquefield, S.; Baxter, L.; Frederick, W. “Experimental Study of the Mechanisms of Fine-Particle Deposition in Kraft Recovery Boilers,” 1998 International Chemical Recovery Conference Proceedings, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, p. 443-467.

  • Frederick, W.; Schmidl, G.; Woitkovich, C.; Sinquefield, S., “Distribution of Nonprocess Elements in Pulp-Mill and Bleach-Plant Process Streams; Calculating Precipitation of Inorganic Species,” 1997 Minimum Effluent Mills Symposium Proceedings, TAPPI Press (Atlanta) p. 93-100 (October 23, 1997).

  • Kymäläinen, M., K. Janka, W.J. Frederick, M. Littau, V. Sricharoenchaikul, N. Jivakanun, and K.J. Wåg, “Sulfate Reduction in an Entrained-Flow Reactor,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. B251-B262.

  • Kauppinen, E.I., M.P. Mikkanen, T. Valmari, J.K. Jokiniemi, S.A. Sinquefield, W.J. Frederick, M. Hupa, R. Backman, M. Forssén, P. McKeough, V. Arpiainen, M. Kurkela, M. Moisio, J. Keskinen, and M. Mäkinen, “Sodium Release During Black Liquor Pyrolysis: Differences Between the Results from Various Laboratory Scale Experiments,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. B105-B112.

  • Vakkilainen, E.K., W.J. Frederick, V.V. Reis, and K.J. Wåg, “Potassium and Chloride Enrichment During Black Liquor Combustion. Laboratory Data and Mechanistic Model,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. B63-B76.

  • Wåg, K.J., W.J. Frederick, V. Sricharoenchaikul, T.M. Grace, and M. Kymäläinen, “Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal During Kraft Char Burning,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. B35-B50.

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V., W.J. Frederick, M. Kymäläinen, and T.M. Grace, “Sulfur Species Transformations and Sulfate Reduction During Pyrolysis of Kraft Black Liquor,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. A227-A235.

  • Sricharoenchaikul, V., W.J. Frederick, and T.M. Grace, “Thermal Conversion of Tars to Light Gases During Black Liquor Pyrolysis,” Proc. 1995 TAPPI-CPPA International Chemical Recovery Conference, Toronto, April 23-27, pp. A209-A216.

  • Grace, T.M., Wåg, K.J., Horton, R.R., Frederick, W.J., “Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate reduction and Carbon Removal,” Proc. 16th National Energy Technology Conf., Houston, April 13-14, 1994.

  • Frederick, W.J., G.N. Jovanovic, R. Sundrani, R. Backman, K. Durai-Swamy, and C.A. Brown, “A Novel Process for the Regeneration of NaOH and Reduction of Discharge from Bleach Plant Effluent,” 4th Pollution Prevention Topical Conference Preprints, AIChE, New York, (1993), pp. 250-255.

  • Kauppinen, E.I., P. Mikkanen, J.K. Jokiniemi, K. Iisa, L. Boonsongsup, S.A. Sinquefield, and W.J. Frederick, “Fume Particle Characteristics and Their Reactions with SO2 at Kraft Recovery Boiler Conditions,” Proc. 1993 TAPPI Engineering Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 369-376.

  • Sinquefield, S.A., P. Mikkanen, W.J. Frederick, and E.I. Kauppinen, “A Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor for the Study of Aerosol Formation and Deposition during Black Liquor Combustion and Pyrolysis,” in Report Series in Aerosol Science, No. 23 (1993), P. Mikkanen, K. Hämeri, and E.K. Kauppinen, Editors. Finnish Association for Aerosol Research, Espoo, Finland.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.N. Adams, “Black Liquor Thermal and Transport Properties,” 1993 TAPPI Kraft Recovery Operations Short Course, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1993), pp. 93-108.

  • Frederick, W.J., “Principles of Black Liquor Evaporation,” 1992 TAPPI Kraft Recovery Operations Short Course, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1992), pp. 113-122.

  • Whitty, K.J., W.J. Frederick, and M. Hupa, “Gasification of Black Liquor Char with H2O at Elevated Pressures,” Proc. 1992 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chemical Recovery Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 627-639.

  • Frederick, W.J., R. Backman, and M. Hupa, “Pressurized Gasification of Spent Pulping Liquors: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Constraints,” Proc. 1992 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chemical Recovery Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, pp. 617-626.

  • Frederick, W.J., M. Forssén, M. Hupa, and P. Hyöty, “Sulfur and Sodium Volatilization During Black Liquor Pyrolysis,” Proc. 1992 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chemical Recovery Conference, TAPPI Press, Atlanta, June 7-11, pp. 599-608.

  • Skrifvars, B.-J., W.J. Frederick, and M. Hupa, “Chemical Reaction Sintering as a Cause for Lime Kiln Rings,” Proc. 1992 TAPPI-CPPA Intl. Chemical Recovery Conf., TAPPI Press, Atlanta, June 7-11, pp. 161-167.

  • Frederick, W.J. and M. Hupa, “The Combustion and Swelling Characteristics of Black Liquor Droplets and Their Impact on Entrainment in Kraft Recovery Boilers,” Proc. 2nd European Conf. on Ind. Boilers and Furnaces, Portugal, Vilamoura - Algarve, Portugal, April 2-5, 1991.

  • Frederick, W.J., R. Backman, and M. Hupa, “Pressurized Gasification of Spent Pulping Liquors: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Constraints,” Proceedings of the 1991 International Symposium on Energy and Environment, August 25-28, Espoo, Finland, pp. 190-196.

  • Frederick, W.J., K.C. Kulas, D.T. Clay, M. Hupa, and T. Noopila, “Analysis of Black Liquor Single Droplet Combustion Data,” Proc. 1989 International Chem. Recovery Conference, Ottawa, April 3-6, 1989, pp. 81-88.

  • Frederick, W.J., “Weyerhaeuser Approach to Energy Audits for the Kraft Pulping and Recovery System,” Proc. International Conference on Recovery of Pulping Chemicals, Vancouver, September 22-25, 1981, pp. 81-86.

  • Frederick, W.J. and T.M. Grace, “Preventing Calcium Carbonate Scaling in Black Liquor Evaporators,” Part 1: Southern Pulp and Paper Mfgr., 42(8):22-24, August 1979; Part 2: Southern Pulp and Paper Mfgr., 42(9):21-29, September 1979.

  • Frederick, W.J. and D.J. Fahey, “Southern Pine Thermochemical Pulp in Newsprint and Corrugating Medium Furnishes,” Southern Pulp and Paper Mfgr., May 1976, pp. 18-20.

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Symposia Edited Back to the top

  • 1992 Forest Products Symposium Proceedings, R.R. Horton, D.W. Bousield, J.B. Haynes, W.J. Frederick, Editors, TAPPI Press, Atlanta (1993).

  • Advances in Process Analysis and Development in the Forest Products Industry, K.L. Holman and W.J. Frederick, Jr., editors. AIChE Symp. Ser. 81(246), New York (1985).

  • New Process Alternatives in the Forest Products Industries, W.J. Frederick, Jr., editor. AIChE Symp. Ser. 76(200), New York (1980).

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Technical Reports Back to the top

  • Frederick, W. J. Jr., G. L. Rorrer, A. W. Rudie, G. W. Schmidl, S. A. Sinquefield, M. L. Laver, W. Yantasee, D. Ming,Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals In Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams.” Final Report, U.S. DOE Project Number: DE-FC07-96ID13441, October 2000.

  • Grace, T.M., Frederick, W.J., Salcudean, M., Wessel, R.A., “Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling Final Report,” U.S. DOE Report, August 1998.

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